The USGenWeb Census Project
The USGenWeb Census Project
Intro to Federal Census Research

1790 Census Facts
Series: M637 Rolls: 1 - 12.

  • First U.S. decennial population census.
  • U.S. population: 3.9 million (3.2 million free, .7 million slave)
  • Census conducted by U.S. marshals under the direction of the president.
  • Census day: 1st Monday in August (2 August 1790).
  • Mandated copies: One set, sent to the federal district court. Same copy ordered sent to the U.S. Secretary of State in 1830.
  • A printed list of the 1790 census is available on microfilm as National Archives' publication: Series: T498 Rolls: 1,2, and 3.
Information Provided on 1790 Census:
  • Name of family head, free white males of 16 years and up
  • free white males, under 16
  • free white females; slaves
  • other persons.


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